The French Ville Nouvelle quarter has many excellent restaurants while the Bardo Museum houses some of the country's most famous ancient mosaics. In maritime terms, the country claims a contiguous zone of 24 nautical miles (44.4 km; 27.6 mi), and a territorial sea of 12 nautical miles (22.2 km; 13.8 mi). For instance, the Tunisian Human Rights League, the first human rights organization in Africa and the Arab world, operated under restrictions and state intrusion for over half of its existence, but is now free to operate. [216] In the 2012 Summer Olympics, he won a bronze medal in the 1500 meter freestyle and a gold medal in the Men's marathon swim at a distance of 10 kilometers. In the Sahara, summers are typically scorching and those with a low tolerance for extreme heat may prefer to travel during the winter (November to February). The present form of the name, with its Latinate suffix -ia, evolved from French Tunisie,[28] in turn generally associated with the Berber root ⵜⵏⵙ, transcribed tns, which means "to lay down" or "encampment". The official name of Tunisia the Republic of Tunisia. Tanit's symbol, a simple female figure with extended arms and long dress, is a popular icon found in ancient sites. On 7 November 2006, President Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali announced the demerger of the business, which became effective on 31 August 2007. A series of salt lakes, known as chotts or shatts, lie in an east–west line at the northern edge of the Sahara, extending from the Gulf of Gabes into Algeria. [77][78] The regime obstructed in any way possible the work of local human rights organizations. If that's not enough, click over to our collection of world maps and flags. [175][176], Tunisia has a sizable Christian community of around over 35,000 adherents,[177][178] mainly Catholics (22,000) and to a lesser degree Protestants. [23] As a result, Tunisia is the only country in North Africa classified as "Free" by the Freedom House organization[24] and is also considered by The Economist's Democracy Index as the only fully democratic state in the Arab World (Lebanon and Iraq being confessional democracies). 1 Answer. Critical approach to the activities of the president, government and the Constitutional Democratic Rally Party (then in power) were suppressed. The Bey of Tunis then, by his own lights but informed by the Turkish example, attempted to effect a modernizing reform of institutions and the economy. General information about Tunisia. Visit the Embassy's COVID-19 page for more information on COVID-19 in Tunisia. Spend the day exploring the winding streets and souks of the medina, or admiring Roman ruins at nearby Carthage. After the series of wars with Greek city-states of Sicily in the 5th century BC, Carthage rose to power and eventually became the dominant civilization in the Western Mediterranean. While some older parties are well-established and can draw on previous party structures, many of the 100-plus parties extant as of February 2012 are small. [107][108], Tunisia is included in the European Union's European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP), which aims at bringing the EU and its neighbours closer. The people of Carthage worshipped a pantheon of Middle Eastern gods including Baal and Tanit. This has changed since, as the media censorship by the authorities have been largely abolished, and self-censorship has significantly decreased. Bookended by the Mediterranean Sea and Sahara Desert, the country’s fertile landscape, coastal resorts, and warm temperatures draw holidaymakers in search of sights, sea, and sun. [12] Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is also the northernmost point on the African continent. [185], The country has a secular culture where religion is separated from not only political, but in public life. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel–Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In the 2008 Summer Olympics, Tunisian Oussama Mellouli won a gold medal in 1500 meter freestyle. Pierre Boucherle was its main instigator, along with Yahia Turki, Abdelaziz Gorgi, Moses Levy, Ammar Farhat, and Jules Lellouche. The team won the 2011 Afrobasket and hosted Africa's top basketball event in 1965, 1987 and 2015. To discover the history behind Sidi Bou Said's unique architecture, visit the Neo-Moorish home of Baron Rodolphe d'Erlanger. [142], Oil production of Tunisia is about 97,600 barrels per day (15,520 m3/d). General information about Tunisia (Casalanca, Tunis and Sousse) Answer Save. 163,610 sq km (63,170 sq miles). Tunisia, officially the Republic of Tunisia, is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa, covering 163,610 square kilometres (63,170 square miles). He was consistently re-elected with enormous majorities every five years (well over 80 percent of the vote), the last being 25 October 2009,[70] until he fled the country amid popular unrest in January 2011. Persians went to the West and intermarried with the Gaetulians and became the Numidians. The TV media has long remained under the domination of the Establishment of the Broadcasting Authority Tunisia (ERTT) and its predecessor, the Tunisian Radio and Television, founded in 1957. According to The New York Times, Tunisia is "known for its golden beaches, sunny weather and affordable luxuries". [113], After the revolution, a number of Salafist groups emerged and in some occasions have violently repressed artistic expression that is viewed to be hostile to Islam. [34][35][36], At the beginning of recorded history, Tunisia was inhabited by Berber tribes. Tunisia has a coastline 1,148 kilometres (713 mi) long. [182][183] One-third of the Jewish population lives in and around the capital. [31][32], The French derivative Tunisie was adopted in some European languages with slight modifications, introducing a distinctive name to designate the country. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014,[22] and for president on 23 November 2014. Farming methods reached the Nile Valley from the Fertile Crescent region about 5000 BC, and spread to the Maghreb by about 4000 BC. [102], Tunisia is a representative democracy and a republic with a president serving as head of state, a prime minister as head of government, a unicameral parliament, and a civil law court system. After a series of campaigns beginning in 1534 to conquer and colonize the region, the Ottoman Empire established control in 1574 and held sway for over 300 years afterwards. The culture of Tunisia is mixed due to its long established history of outside influence from people ‒ such as Phoenicians, Romans, Vandals, Byzantines, Arabs, Turks, Italians, Spaniards, and the French ‒ who all left their mark on the country. [126] Tunisia's Penal Code criminalises several forms of corruption, including active and passive bribery, abuse of office, extortion and conflicts of interest, but the anti-corruption framework is not effectively enforced. Among the literary figures include Ali Douagi, who has produced more than 150 radio stories, over 500 poems and folk songs and nearly 15 plays,[203] Khraief Bashir, an Arabic novelist who published many notable books in the 1930s and which caused a scandal because the dialogues were written in Tunisian dialect,[203] and others such as Moncef Ghachem, Mohamed Salah Ben Mrad, or Mahmoud Messadi. [105], Rare for the Arab world, women held more than 20% of seats in the country's pre-revolution bicameral parliament. The remaining 1% is made up by Christians, Jews and Shia Muslims. Thus, the persecution, and murder of the Jews from 1940 to 1943 was part of the Shoah in France. Do not travel to: Since January 2011 and at the direction of the executive branch, the military has taken on increasing responsibility for domestic security and humanitarian crisis response. The Tunisian Air Force has 154 aircraft and 4 UAVs. A basic education for children between the ages of 6 and 16 has been compulsory since 1991. Additional crops included beans, figs, grapes, and other fruits. [104], The number of legalized political parties in Tunisia has grown considerably since the revolution. In 1948 the Jewish population was an estimated 105,000, but by 2013 only about 900 remained. [94], Tunisia was hit by two terror attacks on foreign tourists in 2015, first killing 22 people at the Bardo National Museum, and later killing 38 people at the Sousse beachfront. As for poetry, Tunisian poetry typically opts for nonconformity and innovation with poets such as Aboul-Qacem Echebbi. [91], In March 2012, Ennahda declared it will not support making sharia the main source of legislation in the new constitution, maintaining the secular nature of the state. Its 1,300 kilometres (810 miles) of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin. Ennahda's stance on the issue was criticized by hardline Islamists, who wanted strict sharia, but was welcomed by secular parties. The main clubs are Espérance Sportive de Tunis, Étoile Sportive du Sahel, Club Africain, Club Sportif Sfaxien, Union Sportive Monastirienne, and ES Metlaoui. Go to my Tunisia Visa page for information on the different types of visas for Tunisia. safe drinking water became close to universal approaching 100% in urban Plugs used in Tunisia are two pin plugs, same as Europe. "The Nobel Peace Prize 2015". The higher education system in Tunisia has experienced a rapid expansion and the number of students has more than tripled over the past 10 years from approximately 102,000 in 1995 to 365,000 in 2005. 1. In 2006, the former Tunisian president declared that he would "fight" the hijab, which he refers to as "ethnic clothing". On February 19, 1943, Rommel launched an attack against the U.S. [62][63], Tunisia achieved independence from France on 20 March 1956 with Habib Bourguiba as Prime Minister. Contrary to the pessimism of Albert Memmi, who predicted that Tunisian literature was sentenced to die young,[204] a high number of Tunisian writers are abroad including Abdelwahab Meddeb, Bakri Tahar, Mustapha Tlili, Hele Beji, or Mellah Fawzi. Culture. [110], A Code of Personal Status was adopted shortly after independence in 1956, which, among other things, gave women full legal status (allowing them to run and own businesses, have bank accounts, and seek passports under their own authority). A 2.5-hour drive south of Tunis takes you to El Jem, a Punic city that became an important center of commerce during Roman times. The industrial sector is mainly made up of clothing and footwear manufacturing, production of car parts, and electric machinery. [citation needed]. Agricultural communities in the humid coastal plains of central Tunisia then were ancestors of today's Berber tribes. [167][168], French also plays a major role in Tunisian society, despite having no official status. The general rule is to keep an arms length away when speaking to someone. From a very young age, he was interested in poetry and had a need to express his love for humanity and vision of tolerance on paper. supervision of small and medium water supplies in the remaining rural There is a 300 million envelope for the benefit of technically unemployed workers, the first of which, according to the Finance Department's proposal, would be of interest to SMEs, with a view to strengthening the SME support fund, in addition to the implementation of the previous decision to provide a bonus of 3 points of interest. The international telephone code for Tunisia is 216. During the rule of Ben Ali, only three functioned as independent opposition parties: the PDP, FDTL, and Tajdid. [99], Tunisia is home to five terrestrial ecoregions: Mediterranean conifer and mixed forests, Saharan halophytics, Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe, Mediterranean woodlands and forests, and North Saharan steppe and woodlands. [163], The first people known to history in what is now Tunisia were the Berbers. [110] Sharia courts were abolished in 1956. It is mountainous in the north and extends into the Sahara Desert in the south. [128] The bulk of Tunisians belong to the Maliki School of Sunni Islam and their mosques are easily recognizable by square minarets. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. Before the recent democratic transition, although freedom of the press was formally guaranteed by the constitution, almost all newspapers have in practice followed the government line report. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is also the northernmost point on the African continent. The creation of Radio Tunis in 1938 allowed musicians a greater opportunity to disseminate their works. Refers to the Maghreb countries, including Mauritania, Morocco, Algeria and Libya. Other improved conditions have been reported within Tunisia. Legend says that Dido from Tyre, now in modern-day Lebanon, founded the city in 814 BC, as retold by the Greek writer Timaeus of Tauromenium. Majlis Al-Nuwab (Chamber of Deputies)", "49 femmes élues à l'assemblée constituante : 24% des 217 sièges", "Tunisie: Selma Znaidi, une femme de plus à l'Assemblée", "State Sponsored Homophobia 2016: A world survey of sexual orientation laws: criminalisation, protection and recognition", International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association, "Two Men Sentenced To 8 Months in Jail For Suspicion of Being Gay", "The Tunisian women locked up for smoking a joint", "It will no longer be legal to rape a woman in Tunisia if you marry her afterwards", "Våld mot kvinnor blir olagligt i Tunisien – Nyheter (Ekot)", "The Global Competitiveness Index 2009–2010 rankings", "HP to open customer service center in Tunisia", "Trouble in paradise: How one vendor unmasked the 'economic miracle, "Tunisia2020 attracts billions in foreign funds", "Democracy hangs in the balance in Tunisia", "A Night, and Day, In Tunisia at a New Resort", "Effort national de maitrise de l'energie : contribution de la steg", "Tunisia : A civil nuclear station of 1000 Megawatt and two sites are selected", Nouvelle version du plan solaire tunisien, "Joint Monitoring Programme for Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation", Etude sur la participation privée dans les infrastructures en Tunisie, "Le Tunisien: une dimension méditerranéenne qu'atteste la génétique", "An outline of the Shilha (Berber) vernacular of Douiret (Southern Tunisia)",, "Studi berberi e mediterranei. The transition from a Latin-speaking Christian Berber society to a Muslim and mostly Arabic-speaking society took over 400 years (the equivalent process in Egypt and the Fertile Crescent took 600 years) and resulted in the final disappearance of Christianity and Latin in the 12th or 13th centuries. In the 19th century, the rulers of Tunisia became aware of the ongoing efforts at political and social reform in the Ottoman capital. The Tunisia national football team, also known as "The Eagles of Carthage," won the 2004 African Cup of Nations (ACN), which was held in Tunisia. [171], The majority of Tunisia's population (around 98%) are Muslims while about 2% follow Christianity and Judaism or other religions. [173] Sunnis form the majority with non-denominational Muslims being the second largest group of Muslims,[174] followed by Ibadite Amazighs. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. Along the Mediterranean coast, resort towns like Hammamet provide an abundance of sun and sea; while the southern Sahara is populated by dramatic desert landscapes, fascinating Berber villages and abandoned Star Wars sets. [125], Tunisia is an export-oriented country in the process of liberalizing and privatizing an economy that, while averaging 5% GDP growth since the early 1990s, has suffered from corruption benefiting politically connected elites. General Information . Under French colonization, European settlements in the country were actively encouraged; the number of French colonists grew from 34,000 in 1906 to 144,000 in 1945. Northern Tunisia has a Mediterranean climate with hot, dry summers and mild, rainy winters. It is 220 voltage. In the last years of the Hafsid dynasty, Spain seized many of the coastal cities, but these were recovered by the Ottoman Empire. Depending on your planned activities, some travelers may want to consider rabies and hepatitis B injections as well. French acts as a language of commerce and is spoken by around two thirds of the population, while Berber is the principal language of the south. Ben Ali and his family were accused of corruption[71] and plundering the country's money. Other languages remained untouched, such as the Russian Туни́с (Tunís) and Spanish Túnez. Instead, Tunisia is considering other options to diversify its energy mix, such as renewable energies, coal, shale gas, liquified natural gas and constructing a submarine power interconnection with Italy. The Sahel, a broadening coastal plain along Tunisia's eastern Mediterranean coast, is among the world's premier areas of olive cultivation. Currency: The local currency is the Tunisian Dinar (TND) which is divided in 1000 millimes. As of 2011[update], access to The Tunisian Dinar is divided into 1000 millimes. [42] This mosque is the oldest and most prestigious sanctuary in the Muslim West with the oldest standing minaret in the world;[43] it is also considered a masterpiece of Islamic art and architecture. [145][146] As of 2015[update], Tunisia has abandoned these plans. Tunisia's currency is the Tunisian dinar; for accurate exchange rates, use this online converter. Attacks on European shipping were made by corsairs, primarily from Algiers, but also from Tunis and Tripoli, yet after a long period of declining raids the growing power of the European states finally forced its termination. [95], The Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet won the 2015 Nobel Peace Prize for its work in building a peaceful, pluralistic political order in Tunisia.[96]. During this era the governing councils controlling Tunisia remained largely composed of a foreign elite who continued to conduct state business in the Turkish language. General Information Tunisia, officially the Republic of Tunisia, is a country in northern Africa, bordered to the north and east by the Mediterranean Sea and to the … The main field is El Bourma. [144], Tunisia had plans for two nuclear power stations, to be operational by 2020. SS Commander Walter Rauff continued to implement the Final Solution there. At the beginning of the 20th century, musical activity was dominated by the liturgical repertoire associated with different religious brotherhoods and secular repertoire which consisted of instrumental pieces and songs in different Andalusian forms and styles of origins, essentially borrowing characteristics of musical language. [citation needed], The national bibliography lists 1249 non-school books published in 2002 in Tunisia, with 885 titles in Arabic. Tunisia has a diverse economy, with important agricultural, mining, energy, tourism, and manufacturing sectors. [139], Among Tunisia's tourist attractions are its cosmopolitan capital city of Tunis, the ancient ruins of Carthage, the Muslim and Jewish quarters of Jerba, and coastal resorts outside of Monastir. The Medes settled and were known as Mauri, later Moors. Its coast was settled by Phoenicians starting as early as the 12th century BC (Bizerte, Utica). The city will consist of residential, medical, financial, industrial, entertainment and touristic buildings as well as a port zone for a total cost of US$80 Billion. Education and Literacy. In this case, the same name is used for both country and city, as with the Arabic تونس‎, and only by context can one tell the difference.[28]. Tunisia. The battle opened with initial success by the German and Italian forces, but the massive supply and numerical superiority of the Allies led to the Axis surrender on 13 May 1943. Browse by country. Paramilitary forces consisted of a 12,000-member national guard. [48] Zirid Tunisia flourished in many areas: agriculture, industry, trade, and religious and secular learning. France is set to become an important partner in Tunisia's nuclear power plans, having signed an agreement, along with other partners, to deliver training and technology. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. I offer sea freight from Tunis I provide terminal handling services I provide freight forwarding services Most programs are in Arabic but some are in French. In another development, Youssef Rekik reused the technique of painting on glass and founded Nja Mahdaoui calligraphy with its mystical dimension. [54] International Religious Freedom Report for 2007 estimates thousands of Tunisian Muslims have converted to Christianity. Tunisia has resumed most transportation options, (including airport operations and re-opening of borders) and business operations (including day cares and schools). [208][209], In 2007, some 245 newspapers and magazines (compared to only 91 in 1987) are 90% owned by private groups and independents. One Euro is worth 1.5 TND at the moment. The ITF Board decided to send a strong message to the Tunisian Tennis Federation that this kind of action will not be tolerated. [87], On 3 March 2011, the interim president announced that elections to a Constituent Assembly would be held on 24 July 2011. The birth of Tunisian contemporary painting is strongly linked to the School of Tunis, established by a group of artists from Tunisia united by the desire to incorporate native themes and rejecting the influence of Orientalist colonial painting. With its white domed houses and blue-painted doors, the clifftop town of Sidi Bou Said is Grecian in its beauty. Tunisia has a diverse economy, ranging from agriculture, mining, manufacturing, and petroleum products, to tourism. General Information . tunisia Government Republic. Tunisia's official religion is Islam and approximately 99% of the population identify as Sunni Muslims. Close relations with Europe, particularly with France[19] and with Italy,[20][21] have been forged through economic cooperation, privatization, and industrial modernization. 1600s - Tunisia becomes part of the Turkish Ottoman empire, but has a high degree of autonomy. Population. Communities of Tunisian Christians would still exist in Nefzaoua up to the 14th century. Nobel Foundation. [187], The constitution declares Islam as the official state religion and requires the President to be Muslim. [153], According to the CIA, as of 2017, Tunisia has a population of 11,403,800 inhabitants. The official language of Tunisia is Arabic. [122] Tunisia's military spending was 1.6% of GDP as of 2006[update]. Inland from the Sahel, between the Dorsal and a range of hills south of Gafsa, are the Steppes. [46], After conquering Cairo, the Fatimids abandoned Tunisia and parts of Eastern Algeria to the local Zirids (972–1148). [127] However, according to the Corruption Perceptions Index published annually by Transparency International, Tunisia was ranked the least corrupt North-African-country in 2016, with a score of 41. The Tunisian Dorsale, or High Tell, a southwest-northeast–trending mountain range that is an extension of the Saharan Atlas (Atlas Saharien) of Algeria, tapers off in the direction of the Sharīk (Cape Bon) Peninsula in the northeast, south of the Gulf of Tunis. The airport is located north of Sousse at Enfidha and is to mainly serve the resorts of Hamammet and Port El Kantaoui, together with inland cities such as Kairouan. [39] Following its conquest, the Romans renamed Carthage to Africa, incorporating it as a province. Tunisia finalised the tariffs dismantling for industrial products in 2008 and therefore was the first non-EU Mediterranean country to enter in a free trade area with EU. Arabic literature dates back to the 7th century with the arrival of Arab civilization in the region. The country maintains 19,232 kilometres (11,950 mi) of roads,[128] with three highways: the A1 from Tunis to Sfax (works ongoing for Sfax-Libya), A3 Tunis-Beja (works ongoing Beja – Boussalem, studies ongoing Boussalem – Algeria) and A4 Tunis – Bizerte. The Ennahda Movement, formerly banned under the Ben Ali regime, came out of the election as the largest party, with 89 seats out of a total of 217. The railway network is operated by SNCFT and amounts to 2,135 kilometres (1,327 mi) in total. [110] The Code of Personal Status remains one of the most progressive civil codes in North Africa and the Muslim world. Aside from the president, Tunisians enjoy a significant degree of religious freedom, a right enshrined and protected in its constitution, which guarantees the freedom of thoughts, beliefs and to practice one's religion. [133], Tunis Sports City is an entire sports city currently being constructed in Tunis, Tunisia. Speakers of Berber dialects comprised 2% of the population. Labour unions were said to be an integral part of the protests. [60] With this treaty, Tunisia was officially made a French protectorate, over the objections of Italy. Visa required for U.S. citizens before you go to Tunisia: No. Shop signs, menus and road signs in Tunisia are generally written in both Arabic and French. This was the reason or pretext for French forces to establish a protectorate in 1881. The history of the Jews in Tunisia goes back some 2,000 years. The city that will consist of apartment buildings as well as several sports facilities will be built by the Bukhatir Group at a cost of $5 Billion. Tunisia also has a number of well thought of universities. Check out our country profile, full of essential information about Tunisia's geography, history, government, economy, population, culture, religion and languages. In addition to the cultivations and the capture and transporting of exotic wild animals from the western mountains, the principal production and exports included the textiles, marble, wine, timber, livestock, pottery such as African Red Slip, and wool. General information; Useful links; General information / About Portugal / General information; Geographic Location. [192], The total adult literacy rate in 2008 was 78%[193] and this rate goes up to 97.3% when considering only people from 15 to 24 years old. [49] Management by the later Zirid emirs was neglectful though, and political instability was connected to the decline of Tunisian trade and agriculture. Tunisia is characterized by moderate relief. This guide provides much of the information you may require during your stay in Tunisia. Unfortunately, you cannot change TND outside Tunisia. GENERAL INFORMATION on TUNISIA. Population Density. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. [46] Tunisia flourished under Arab rule when extensive systems were constructed to supply towns with water for household use and irrigation that promoted agriculture (especially olive production). In 1881, using the pretext of a Tunisian incursion into Algeria, the French invaded with an army of about 36,000 and forced the Bey to agree to the terms of the 1881 Treaty of Bardo (Al Qasr as Sa'id). General Information for Tunisia. The chamber serves for five-year terms. During the pre-revolution era there were at some point restrictions in the wearing of Islamic head scarves (hijab) in government offices and on public streets and public gatherings. [56] In the late 16th century the coast became a pirate stronghold. The further south you go, the climate gets more arid; and in the southern desert, it is hot, dry and sunny all year round. Tunisia is situated on the Mediterranean coast of Northwest Africa, midway between the Atlantic Ocean and the Nile Delta. for its policy on recreational drug use, for instance automatic 1-year prison sentences for consuming cannabis. The main port of entry for most overseas visitors is the Tunis-Carthage International Airport (TUN), located in the capital. General information from Tunisia - Wikipedia Tunisian Republic. Until then, ERTT managed all public television stations (Télévision Tunisienne 1 as well as Télévision Tunisienne 2 which had replaced the defunct RTT 2) and four national radio stations (Radio Tunis, Tunisia Radio Culture, Youth and Radio RTCI) and five regional Sfax, Monastir, Gafsa, Le Kef and Tataouine.